COP28 Climate Summit

A woman pretends to resuscitate the Earth during a demonstration at the COP28 U.N. Climate Summit on Sunday, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Peter Dejong/Associated Press

DUBAI, United Arab Emirates — With Planet Earth running a fever, U.N. climate talks focused Sunday on the contagious effects on human health.

Under a brown haze over Dubai, the COP28 summit moved past two days of lofty rhetoric and calls for unity from top leaders to concerns about health issues like the deaths of at least 7 million people globally from air pollution each year and the spread of diseases like cholera and malaria as global warming upends weather systems.

World Health Organization Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said it’s high time for the U.N. Conference of Parties on Climate to hold its first “Health Day” in its 28th edition, saying the threats to health from climate change were “immediate and present.”

“Although the climate crisis is a health crisis, it’s well overdue that 27 COPs have been and gone without a serious discussion of health,” he said. “Undoubtedly, health stands as the most compelling reason for taking climate action.”

After two days of speeches by dozens of presidents, prime ministers, royals, and other top leaders – in the background and off-stage – participants were also turning attention to tough negotiations over the next nine days to push for more agreement on ways to cap global warming at 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 Fahrenheit) since pre-industrial times.

Pope Francis, who was forced to abandon plans to attend because of a case of bronchitis, on Sunday said that “even from a distance, I am following with great attention the work.” In remarks read at the Vatican by an aide, the pope called for an end of what he called “bottlenecks” caused by nationalism and “patterns of the past.”


Also Sunday, protests began in earnest: In one on health, a group gave mock resuscitation to an inflatable Earth.

“Well, I mean, it’s cheesy doing CPR on the Earth,” said Dr. Joe Vipond, an emergency room physician from Alberta, Canada, who took part. “We’re kind of in a lot of trouble right now and so anything we can do to bring attention to this issue.”

Saturday capped off with the COP28 presidency announcing that 50 oil and gas companies had agreed to reach near-zero methane emissions and end routine flaring in their operations by 2030. They also pledged to reach “net zero” for their operational emissions by 2050.

U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said, “the promises made clearly fall short of what is required.”

In comments Sunday, he called the methane emissions reductions “a step in the right direction.” But he criticized the net zero pledge for excluding emissions from fossil fuel consumption – where the vast majority of the industry’s greenhouse gases come from – and said the announcement provided no clarity on how the companies planned to reach their goals.

“There must be no room for greenwashing,” he said.


Temperature rises caused by the burning of oil, gas and coal have worsened natural disasters like floods, heat waves and drought, and caused many people to migrate to more temperate zones – in addition to the negative knock-on effects on human health.

“Our bodies are ecosystems, and the world is an ecosystem,” said John Kerry, the U.S. climate envoy. “If you poison our land and you poison our water and you poison our air, you poison our bodies.”

He said his daughter Vanessa, who works with the WHO chief, “repeats to me frequently that we should not measure progress on the climate crisis just by the degrees averted, but by the lives saved.”

Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, head of climate and health at WHO, said heat alone has put pressure on the body and led to higher rates of infectious disease.

“Climate change doesn’t need to be on a death certificate for us to be confident that climate change is causing deaths,” he said.

In the United States, 8.5% of greenhouse gas emissions come from the health sector and the Biden Administration is trying to use funds from the Inflation Reduction Act to try to cut that down, Assistant Secretary of Health and Human Services Admiral Rachel Levine said.


“If we’re going to meet the nation’s goals for climate change, we’re going to have to include the health sector,” she said.

COP28 Climate Summit

Sarah Neggazi holds a sign that reads “this is a climate emergency” during a demonstration at the COP28 U.N. Climate Summit on Sunday, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates Peter Dejong/Associated Press

U.S. officials said one of the main issues has been waste anesthesia emissions from hospitals and greenhouse gases that escape when patients are treated for respiratory diseases like asthma with albuterol inhalers.

Part of the solution may come through raising awareness: When officials used a system that showed anesthesiologists how much gas they used and how much escaped, emissions fell by as much as half, said Dr. John Balbus, the Health and Human Services climate change and health equity director.

Dr. Yseult Gibert of Montreal said 70% of operating-room emissions come from the way patients are given anesthesia. She said some types of anesthesia are more climate-friendly than others, without sacrificing quality or effectiveness when it comes to care.

Gibert, 24, now at Johns Hopkins University, specializes in “planetary health” – the intersection between climate and health. Heat waves, which can be deadly, also can weigh on mental health, she said, while poor air quality can make life harder for those facing lung and heart ailments and cause respiratory issues, like asthma in kids.

“Not a lot of people know that the climate crisis is a health crisis,” she said.


The impact of human activity on the climate was visible to conferencegoers in Dubai, an oil-rich boom city that often faces higher levels of air pollution than other places on Earth due to its location. Haze is common.

Rapid construction, industrial areas and pollution from automobiles have added to the impacts of sand and particulate churned by desert winds. Some 3.5 million people now live in Dubai, up from 183,000 less than 50 years ago, and estimates suggest another million commute into the city-state each day for work.

The Dubai government, on its website, listed its Air Quality Index level mostly at “good” on Sunday.

IQAir, a Swiss vendor of air-quality monitoring products, listed Dubai as the city with the 18th-worst air quality in the world with “moderate” air quality levels as of noon local time Sunday. It cited high levels of two types of particulate matter in the air and advised mask-wearing for “sensitive groups” and a reduction of outdoor exercise.


Associated Press writers Jon Gambrell, Seth Borenstein and Peter Prengaman contributed to this report.

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